This is a section out of my next book: “macOS Installation for Apple Administrators”
High Sierra came with many changes for Mac administrators. Some of them were anticipated, some of them weren’t.
When Apple announced APFS would be deployed to every OS by 2018, Mac Admins thought that would be the main challenge and the reason for sweeping changes in the structure and functionality of macOS.
At the same time it was obvious that Apple liked the way MDM was in the center of all management for iOS and wanted to have it play a similar role for macOS. The extent how far Apple would push it was unclear.
While APFS has certainly come with some challenges, mainly for managed FileVault users, it was not the “Macnarök” that we were expecting.
I am not including these links to make fun of the authors – quite the opposite. At the time there was justified anxiety about the future of macOS adminstration and these posts (and many others) put this into words. I believe that because of MacAdmins blogging and presenting about their concerns and anxiety, talking with Apple Reps and filing bugs, as a community, were able to influence the course Apple is taking. It is definitely a slow, frustrating and opaque process, but not entirely fruitless.
However, other new “features” of High Sierra such as UAKEL and, later with 10.13.4, UAMDM provide their own set of hurdles administrators have to clear.
These are the main challenges for macOS deployment:
- Imaging is Dead, Long Live the Installer
- MDM is Essential
- Secure Boot
Let’s look at these challenges and some solutions to them in detail.
Imaging is Dead, Long Live the Installer
Imaging has been the means to quickly and reliably install macOS to clients. It could scale from an external drive for a few clients to a NetBoot infrastructure for large deployments.
In the early days imaging meant building a ‘Golden Master’ image with all configuration and software ‘baked in,’ which then would be deployed to all the Macs. Creating this ‘Golden Master’ image was a lot of work and the result quite fragile and error-prone. Macs would usually be kept on a specific version of ‘the image’ for months or a year without updates.
Since the process of manually building the Golden Master was tedious and error-prone, administrators started to automate the process. Tool chains of packages, scripts and other tools could build the master image (or most of it) automatedly.
The same packages and scripts that automated the configuration of the master image could be used to install and update software on ‘live’ Macs. Management tools, like Munki, Casper (now Jamf Pro) and Filewave, can deploy updates to clients automatically without user interaction. As work was moved from preparing the master image to maintaining the live system, the master image became thinner and thinner.
This resulted in the ‘thin imaging’ approach, where the image only had the minimal ‘base OS’ plus enough configuration to connect it to the management system. Once the Mac booted the management system takes over. Imaging would only be used to wipe a Mac and lay down a ‘base image.’
While this approach is slower than monolithic imaging, it is more flexible and allows to keep the system and software on the client continually updated, without having to re-image.
Some workflows even skipped the imaging entirely. When you get a Mac out of the box it already has macOS installed, all you need is to configure it to connect to your management system, which will take care of the rest.
Some administrators had already moved to ‘thin’ imaging or ‘no-imaging’ workflows before High Sierra and pronouncements that ‘Imaging is Dead!’ have been made years ago. Administrators using thin imaging or no-imaging workflows will find they are better prepared for the High Sierra installation workflows.
Mac administrators now have to build new workflows based on the Apple’s supported installation methods for High Sierra. These all rely on the macOS Installer application in one form or another.
The supported means of installing macOS High Sierra are:
- the macOS Installer application
- a bootable installer on an external drive
- the macOS Recovery System
- a NetInstall image built with Apple’s System Image Utility
Using the macOS installer application to upgrade a system from 10.12 is straightforward enough and similar to what was possible with the
startosinstall command since OS X El Capitan 10.11.
The main challenge are ‘nuke-n pave’ workflows, where the system on a Mac is erased and overwritten with a new system.
This workflow is easy with traditional imaging. In fact, it was easier and faster to just image over a system, rather than upgrade.
startosinstall --eraseinstall option added in 10.13.4 makes an installer based ‘nuke’n pave’ workflow possible with the macOS Installer application.
In the new High Sierra world of Mac deployment, we face the same challenge: how do you connect an ‘out-of-the-box’ macOS to your management system.
Apple’s answer to that is clearly DEP.
MDM is Essential
DEP will tell a freshly installed Mac which MDM server is ‘responsible’ for it. The MDM server can then use the
InstallApplication MDM command to install and configure a management agent, which together with the
mdmclient performs the remaining configuration and software installation.
Up until 10.13 Mac administrators could ignore and not use an MDM for Mac deployment and management. There were a few useful features, but there are also many tasks an MDM cannot do or that a local agent can do better.
With High Sierra MDM became essential to manage and support UAKEL. In the early versions of High Sierra, merely being connected to an MDM would disable UAKEL, starting with 10.13.4 UAKEL can be managed with a configuration profile which has to be pushed from a user approved MDM.
Like supervison for iOS devices, UAMDM adds an extra level of approval and provides an additional level of control over the macOS client device. UAMDM will be required for more and more essential functionality going forward.
However, as the name implies, a ‘user approved’ MDM needs to be interactively approved by a user at some time during deployment which creates an enormous challenge for automated workflows.
Apple claims that DEP enrolled devices are automatically user-approved. However, even the DEP enrollment still requires user interaction in the Setup Assistant.
Also DEP is not available in all regions and it may not be possible for organizations to add all existing Macs to their DEP account. DEP also requires Apple DEP servers to be accessible. So during this transition phase and for some other situations, Mac administrators have to have a non-DEP workflow solution to get a UAMDM enrolled device.
Finally the iMac Pro introduces a new system controller with secure boot. By default all external means of booting an iMac Pro are disabled.
NetBoot/NetInstall is not supported on the iMac Pro at all. You can enable booting off external drives, but the process to do so is quite convoluted and cannot be automated. So for administrators, the option is fairly useless.
startosinstall command administrators can achieve the necessary management steps from within the local system. You can either upgrade the existing system or ‘nuke’n pave’ with the
eraseinstall option is limited to systems that are already on 10.13 with an APFS file system. On the iMac Pro you can safely make that assumption, but for ‘older’ Macs and systems you usually cannot.
So administrators need a second workflow for systems and hardware that cannot run the
eraseinstall option (yet).
The Recovery system, external installer volume or NetInstall are the Apple Supported means which can ‘nuke’n pave’ a Mac. NetInstall is the only means that can be automated.
However, there are other solutions such as Imagr or a modified DeployStudio workflow which can achieve the same goal using the macOS Installer application and
The New macOS Deployment Workflow
Deployment strategies and workflows are as varied and individual as the organizations that use them. But with the challenges listed above, I believe we can state a few pieces that are necessary for a new deployment workflow for High Sierra and hopefully going forward.
Enrolling a ‘new’ Mac
First, any deployment workflow should be designed to start with a clean ‘out-of-box’ macOS. This way the same workflow can be applied to new Macs and to Macs that were just re-installed.
At the end of the installation workflow the Mac is enrolled and user-approved with your management system, so that it can take over and perform the remaining configuration and installation. All configuration steps should be controlled from the management system and be executed independently of which deployment workflow was used.
DEP is the Apple-preferred means of connecting a new device to your MDM. Even when you require a non-DEP workflow for older Macs you should implement a DEP workflow. It is likely that Apple may make DEP enrollment mandatory in the future.
However, right now in the transition phase, you will need a second workflow for machines that cannot be registered with DEP.
For the non-DEP workflow, you can choose between manual enrollment, which happens after the user has booted and logged in for first time, or some sort of ‘side-loading’ where you add the MDM and management system configuration to a system, before it even boots for the first time.
For sideloading you can boot to Recovery and install software on the system volume. (Bootstrappr)
On Macs that still support NetBoot, you can also use tools like NetInstall, Imagr or DeployStudio. Either way you should do this before first boot of the system.
UAMDM requires user interaction to approve the management in some form or another. This is a change from previous deployment workflows which could be ‘fully automated.’
You will have to plan for this user interaction. In some cases, such as individual-use devices, the approval of the management will be part of standard first setup and will be done by the end user. In other situations such as classroom setups, it will be harder to make this part of the workflow.
Some management systems let you scope software installations and configurations depending on criteria reported from the device. In this case you can set up your workflow so that installations that rely on UAMDM (third party kernel extensions) are deferred until the MDM is approved.
Either way, the end-result of each of these paths should be a Mac that is enrolled (user-approved) with your MDM where the management system is installing, configuring, maintaining the system and software.
Restoring a Mac to ‘new’
You will also need a second set of workflows that bring a Mac from any state (even a broken one) back to the ‘out-of-box’ state so that you can start over (or retire it).
The first option uses the
startosinstall --eraseinstall command. This is easiest to automate and works on new hardware like the iMac Pro. However, it will not work on Macs without APFS systems and older versions of macOS.
The Macs that cannot use the
eraseinstall option, however, can use NetInstall or a similar NetBoot based tool. You can use the macOS Install application and
startosinstall with Imagr and DeployStudio, so this combination will run the installer and can make sure the firmware is up to date as well.
Note that the workflows and tools for restoring a Mac are also used to ‘sideload’ the agent configuration on to a Mac. You can add the MDM/agent configuration to the restore workflow to save some steps here. However, since NetBoot based workflows are transition solutions to support ‘old’ Macs and systems, your deployment workflows need to work with ‘out-of-box’ systems as well as pre-configured systems.
In the transition phase until all hardware supports
eraseinstall you will need both workflows available.
You should also have documentation, training, and support articles to instruct administrators, techs, and users to restore a Mac to ‘out-of-box’ state with (Internet) Recovery or an external boot drive. While this should be an option of last resort, it will be necessary in situations where a Mac cannot boot otherwise.
Obviously, these are very high level views of the workflow and the devil is very much in the details of the implementation. Even a book can only skim the surface of any implementation. Nevertheless, once you understand and accept this framework, the necessary detailed steps become obvious, though not necessarily easy.
Many thanks and credit need to go to Anthony Reimer, whose excellent presentation at MacAD.UK 2018 helped me sort through my own thoughts on this topic.