In my book “Packaging for Apple Administrators” I show a great use of
pkgbuild to wrap an application in a package installer:
$ pkgbuild --component /Applications/Numbers.app Numbers.pkg
If the application is not already in the
/Applications folder, you have to add the
$ pkgbuild --component /Volumes/Firefox/Firefox.app --install-location /Applications Firefox.pkg
This is great and wonderful, but has one drawback: the installers
pkgbuild creates this way are ‘relocatable’. When the installer does not find the application in the target location, it will look if the application is installed elsewhere on the system. If it finds the ‘relocated’ application bundle, it will happily try to update it in the new location.
Usually this is not a big problem on managed systems. However, if users have copies of applications in unusual locations, e.g., because they do not have permission to install in
/Applications or because they themselves are admins with dozens of versions in
~/Library/AutoPkg, then this can lead to unexpected behavior or failure.
The common solution to this is to create ‘non-relocatable’ installer packages.
What makes a pkg relocatable
relocate element in the
PackageInfo file in an installer package controls this behavior. You can see the
PackageInfo file in Pacifist or with
$ pkgutil --expand Firefox.pkg Firefox_expanded $ more Firefox_expanded/PackageInfo
Among much other data you will see this xml element:
<relocate> <bundle id="org.mozilla.firefox"/> </relocate>
This tells the Installer to look for an application bundle with the given identifier and install in that location. To disable this, you can replace the above element with an empty
Then installer will install or upgrade in the given install-location (e.g.
You can apply this change to the expanded PackageInfo file with a text editor and re-create the pkg file with
$ pkgutil --flatten Firefox_expanded/ Firefox-nr.pkg
(‘nr’ for ‘non-relocatable’)
However, applying these steps after creating each package is tedious and error-prone, so we want to look for a better solution.
pkgbuild to not re-locate
pkgbuild man page mentions there is an option to create non-relocatable installer pkgs with the
BundleIsRelocatable option in a ‘component property list’. This is great, since it is better to use documented options, rather than hacking the
PackageInfo directly. However, to use the
--component-plist option with
pkgbuild you have to use the
--root option rather than the
--component option This requires a bit more effort.
First create a project folder:
$ mkdir -p Firefox/payload $ cd Firefox
And copy the application to the
$ cp -R /Volumes/Firefox/Firefox.app payload/
Then you can use
--analyze to create a template component property list:
$ pkgbuild --analyze --root payload Firefox-component.plist pkgbuild: Inferring bundle components from contents of payload pkgbuild: Writing new component property list to Firefox-component.plist
You can then open the generated property list file in a text or property list editor. You will see several values for different settings and a list of
ChildBundles. Change the value of the
BundleIsRelocatable key from
<false/>. You can do this in the editor or with the
$ plutil -replace BundleIsRelocatable -bool NO Firefox-component.plist
Then build the package with
$ pkgbuild --root payload --identifier org.mozilla.firefox --version 53.0.3 --install-location /Applications --component-plist Firefox-component.plist Firefox-53.0.3.pkg
This will build the package installer with an empty
munki-pkg has an option
suppress-bundle-relocation which achieves the same result.
This approach can be useful but is still complicated. To simplify the creation I have updated my
quickpkg tool to create non-relocatable packages by default. You can change the new default behavior with the
$ quickpkg ~/Downloads/Firefox\ 53.0.3.dmg Firefox-53.0.3.pkg