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The combination of AutoPkg and Munki (or another package distribution system) is very powerful. You can use AutoPkg to automatically download, package and import software from the vendor’s site and then use Munki manifests to choose where and how to deploy. With the Managed Software Center interface, you can give users an App Store like interface to choose from software your insitution provides.
This is all wonderful until the user gets to the “Please Enter Your License Number!” dialog. Installing the software is just the first part of software management. You also need to manage configuration.
Since we do not want to mess around with websites to publish the serial numbers, we need another means of pushing configuration settings with Munki.
Note: your institution’s license agreement with a software vendor may or may not allow distribution of the serial number in this way. Some software may not work this way at all. Please check with the license manager/lawyer at your institution and/or the software vendor before you do this.
Which settings to manage?
My example will be the application Fetch. FetchSoftworks is very gracious as it provides free licences to educational and charitable institutions and it also stores the licensing information in a standard preferences file, which makes it perfect for this example.
You can find a Fetch recipe here. To run it in autopkg do:
autopkg repo-add jleggat-recipes
autopkg run Fetch.munki
And add it to the managed installs or optional installs section for your test client(s).
On a test client, install Fetch and open it. Before you enter any licensing info. Open the
~/Library/Preferences folder in list view and sort the contents by date modified, so the newest changes come first. Quit Fetch again, without entering anything and wait for the Fetch preference file to appear at the top of the list. Note its name (
com.fetchsoftworks.Fetch.plist). You can select the file and hit the space bar to see the contents in QuickView.
Note: It may take a few seconds after quitting the application for the plist file to appear. This is because preference management is handled thorugh a system daemon
cfprefs which will hold values in memory and wait for an “opportune moment” to actually write new and changed values to disk. Keep this in mind when fiddling with preference files.
The safest way to get an up-to-date view of preferences is using the
defaults command in Terminal:
defaults read com.fetchsoftworks.Fetch
Then start Fetch again and enter your licensing information. Once you have successfully licensed Fetch, quit it again. Wait for the list of files in the Preferences folder to update. We see that Fetch has created or updated three plist files.
com.fetchsoftworks.Fetch.Shortcuts.plist. It is pretty obvious which one we are interested in and looking at the contents confirms that the Fetch.License file contains the licensing info. We can verify once more on the Terminal with:
defaults read com.fetchsoftworks.Fetch.License
com.fetchsoftworks.Fetch domain also contains redundant license information, you could manage it either way. Most applications do not split information this way.
Creating the Profile
There are a few approaches to pushing this plist file to a client machine. You could build an installer package that places this file in a specific user’s home directory, but that would fail if the user name varies from client to client. You could write a postinstall script that moves the file to the current user’s Preferences folder, but that would only work for the current user, not other users and especially not users that may log in the future. There are work arounds for all of these problems, and we may need them for other software. But if we want to control preferences in plist files in either
/Library/Preferences then the best solution are Configuration Profiles.
Configuration Profiles are also property list files, but use a different schema because they contain more metadata around the settings. Tim Sutton has written a wonderful tool to convert ‘normal’ preference plist files to conifguration profiles: mcxToProfile.
mcxToProfile like this:
./mcxToProfile.py --plist ~/Library/Preferences com.fetchsoftworks.Fetch.License.plist --identifier FetchLicense --manage Once
--manage Once option sets up the profile, so that it sets the preference keys in it once per user and then stops enforcing them. This is usually the safest and least intrusive choice for management, since it allows the application or the user to override or change settings.
Another option for the
--manage setting are
Often, which will reset the value on every user login. If you do not specify the
--manage switch, then the preference keys in the profile will be always enforced and cannot be changed by the user or the application. This might be very useful in a scrictly controlled environment. Some third party applications may only work with one of the possible
--manage options. Experiment to find out which.
The command above will generate a file called
FetchLicense.mobileconfig open it in a text or property list editor. At the top there is a PayloadContent area where you can find the preference keys from the Fetch.License file nested inside. You can delete any keys and values you do not want to set on the clients.
Further down there are a few top level keys that you will want to modify:
PayloadDisplayName: this is the ‘Name’ of the config that will be displayed to the User in System Preferences. You will want to change this from the default supplied by
mcxToProfile. You can also use the
--displayname option to provide that during profile generation.
PayloadOrganization: Your institution’s name. You can also provide this during profile generation with the
PayloadDescription: a description of what the profile does.
When you later import the profile into Munki it will use these values to fill the pkginfo file.
Testing the Profile
Now quit Fetch and delete all the preferences it may have set. Use the
defaults command rather than just deleting the files to make sure
cfprefsd is not still caching values:
defaults delete com.fetchsoftworks.Fetch
defaults delete com.fetchsoftworks.Fetch.License
defaults delete com.fetchsoftworks.Fetch.Shortcuts
Then double-click the configuration profile we just created in the Finder. System Preferences should open and prompt to install the profile. Click on “Show Profile” to view the contents, note where and how the data we entered earlier appears. You can also see the keys and settings.
Click “Continue” and confirm again to actually install the profile. You can still inspect the profile in the “Profiles” pane of System Preferences. Remember this for future debugging.
Now launch Fetch again and it should not prompt you for a license. If you can try again with a different user and/or on a different computer/virtual machine.
Importing the Profile into Munki
Once you have confirmed that the profile works as expected. You can import it into Munki. With version 2.2 and higher Munki recognizes files with the
.mobileconfig extension as profiles and know how to install, update and un-install them.
To add a configuration profile, you use
munkiimport will interactively confirm extra metadata. It will parse most of the metadata from the profile and use it where appropriate. Then you can use the profile like any other item in munki as a managed install, managed un-install, optional install or update.
In our case we want to deploy the FetchLicense profile whenever the Fetch software is installed. In Munki terminology it is an
munkiimport FetchLicense.mobileconfig --update-for Fetch
Answer the prompts for the remaining metadata inputs. As an update, this profile does not have to be added to a manifest. As soon as the Fetch package itself is installed on a client, Munki will install the
To test, use Managed Software Center to add Fetch or run
managedsoftwareupdate if Fetch is a managed install. You should also see the FetchLicense.mobileprofile appear as a required install. Once the install is done, check the Profiles pane in System Preferences to see if the profile is installed. Then open Terminal and run:
defaults read com.fetchsoftworks.Fetch.License
Finally launch Fetch and it should not ask for the license.
Obviously you can use this method to control other settings in Fetch and other applications as well.